During the studying of thymus peptide’s effect on chromatin heterochromatization in blood lymphocyte in healthy people of different ages and genders, the number of Ag — positive nucleolar organizers regions has been increased under the action of the IPH T peptide complex. This indicates the ability to reheterochromatize chromatin in blood lymphocyte, which contributes to the activation of various gene groups’ expression.
The Thymus peptide complex stimulates the t-cell link of the immune system with age-related decline of immune function. Efficacy was evaluated in elderly and senile people with reduced age-related immunity, highly expressed and moderate severity of immune dysfunction. Thymus peptide drugs in combination with standard treatment contributed to the normalization of the immunogram in 85% of patients, while in the control group only standard treatment was used and the normalization of the immunogram was observed in only 30% of patients. The peptide complex IPH T had a greater effect on t-cell link of immunity (increasing the number of CD3+, CD4+ cells, normalization of the CD4+/CD8+) and had a less expressed effect on B-lymphocytes. All patients who used Thymus peptide had a decreased severity of asthenic syndrome with followed secondary immunodeficiency.
The immuno — heroprotective effect on rat thymus cells was established during restoring the histological structure of the thymus and its cells’ proliferation in rats exposed to gamma radiation according to the accelerated aging model. The study was performed on histological sections (toluidine blue should be stained the mast cells, eosin was stained by hematoxylin, was applied electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry with PCNA antibodies). Thymus drugs were injected subcutaneously at a dosage of 0.5 micrograms per animal, starting from the first radiation session. After injection, the thymus was saved the division into cortical and brain matter (its absence is one of aging’ signs), the number of macrophages and mast cells increased, and the proliferation of thymocytes by PCNA increased.
The studying of the effect on thymic epithelial cells, macrophages and organotypic cultures of thymus and spleen cells in organotypic cultures of rat cells, it was discovered that the drug contributed to an increase of the growth zone in thymus explant — by 28%, and the spleen – by 38%. According to the studying of the peptide complex effect on the ability of peritoneal macrophages to secrete cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFa) during stimulating secretion in young and old mice, cytokine synthesis when stimulating macrophages obtained from old animals was lower than when stimulating macrophages obtained from young animals. The peptide complex introduced into the culture sample in concentrations from 0.5 to 500 ng/ml activates the production of cytokines by stimulated and unstimulated macrophages, and in macrophages obtained from old animals this has more expressed effect in comparison with macrophages of young mice. It activated at concentrations of 2, 20, and 200 ng/ml the proliferation culture of a transformed human thymus epithelial cells (TEC), line VTEC2.H/S on the 7th passage.
Oncostatic effects and effect on stem cells at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 ng/ml inhibits the proliferation of primary trypsinized embryonic mesenchymal stem cells, transplanted fibroblasts of the KF-1 line rats and the human erythromyelosis K-562 cell line. Inhibition of proliferation directed at embryonic and immortalized cells may indicate their antitumor activity. At a concentration of 0.1 ng/ml, it increases the spontaneous proliferative activity of normal lymphocytes, which may indicate its stimulating effect on non-tumor immune cells in adults.
During the studying acute toxicity in mice, rats and Guinea pigs, a histological study of the main organs and tissues and a biochemical blood test were performed. The results have showed that a single injection at a dose which exceeding the estimated therapeutic dose in 5000 times and repeated injection of Thymus peptide at dose, exceeding the therapeutic one in 1000 times, did not have a toxic effect.